Quantification Of Road Transport Particulate Matter Using Detailed Technology Emission Factors

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April 21, 2014

Quantification Of Road Transport Particulate Matter Using Detailed Technology Emission Factors


More than two weeks have passed since my last post. The reason for not publishing something new was a conference, in which I had to participate and present a part of my research work. The conference was TRA 2014 and took place in Paris. I spent almost the entire previous week there. In the paragraphs below, you will find a text version of one of the papers that I presented there. If you like, you can download the original poster version in PDF format. I hope that you will find it interesting. Maybe within the week, I will publish another poster from the TRA conference.



  • Improvement, determination, and harmonization of road transport exhaust PM emission factors (EF). Several other compounds are included (34 compounds in total).
  • Vehicles/Technologies: all vehicles / all technologies (pro-Euro – Euro 7).



  • COPERT 4 and a combined methodology (literature review plus COPERT 4).
  • EFs correspond to urban, rural and highway conditions. For pre-Euro – Euro 5 technologies two different urban conditions (peak and off-peak).
  • For technologies, pre-Euro and Euro1 – Euro 4 (PCs and LDVs), Euro I – Euro IV (HDVs, Buses, and Coaches) and Euro 1 – Euro 2 (Mopeds and Motorcycles), the database includes EFs for the EU-27 and each country member separately.
  • For the newest technologies, only one EF for each pollutant for all EU-27 countries (it does not take into account the share of vehicles cars in different countries, the driving conditions or climatic conditions).


Road transport PM results

Passenger Cars and Light-Duty Vehicles

Evolution Of Diesel PC PM Limit And Corresponding EFs
Evolution of diesel PC PM limit and corresponding EFs (g/km) (Urban driving).
Evolution Of PN EFs Particles km Of PCs 1.4 l 2.0 l From Pre ECE To Euro 7
Evolution of PN EFs (particles/km) of PCs (1.4 l -2.0 l) from pre ECE to Euro 7 (Urban driving).
PSDs Of Diesel And Gasoline PCs Euro 4 1.4 l 2.0 l
PSDs of diesel and gasoline PCs (Euro 4, 1.4 l -2.0 l).

Heavy-Duty Vehicles, Buses, and Coaches

PM EFs g km For HDVs Articulate 14 60 t Running In Different Fuels
PM EFs (g/km) for HDVs (Articulate 14-60 t) running in different fuels.
PSDs Of Various HDVs
PSDs of various HDVs.



  • A database of road transport EFs was developed based on COPERT 4 and a detailed survey of the available literature.
  • Although increased accuracy may be achieved by a more detailed procedure with COPERT (when the appropriate information and data be available), significant differences are not expected given the evolution of vehicle, fuel, aftertreatment, etc, technology.




The file is in PDF format.


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Quantification Of Non-Exhaust Road Transport PM Emissions

Page last modified: October 1, 2021

Christos Samaras

Hi, I am Christos, a Mechanical Engineer by profession (Ph.D.) and a Software Developer by obsession (10+ years of experience)! I founded this site back in 2011 intending to provide solutions to various engineering and programming problems.

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